[238] Much of John's later, negative reputation was established by two chroniclers writing after his death, Roger of Wendover and Matthew Paris, the latter claiming that John attempted conversion to Islam in exchange for military aid from the Almohad ruler Muhammad al-Nasir – a story modern historians consider untrue. (2007) "The Revenues of King John and Philip Augustus Revisited," in Church (ed) 2007. None of his known illegitimate children were born after he remarried, and there is no actual documentary proof of adultery after that point, although John certainly had female friends amongst the court throughout the period. [174] Although the interdict was a burden to much of the population, it did not result in rebellion against John. List Queen Anne had ruled the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Scotland, and the Kingdom of Ireland since 8 March 1702. Holt (1963), p. 19, cited Gillingham (2007) p. 4. (eds) (2002), Maley, Willy. The Cambridge History of Early Modern English Literature. [215], In September 1216, John began a fresh, vigorous attack. [262] The character of John acts either to highlight the virtues of King Richard, or contrasts with the Sheriff of Nottingham, who is usually the "swashbuckling villain" opposing Robin. [243] These historians were often inclined to see John's reign, and his signing of Magna Carta in particular, as a positive step in the constitutional development of England, despite the flaws of the King himself. [77][nb 9] John retreated back across the Channel in December, sending orders for the establishment of a fresh defensive line to the west of Chateau Gaillard. [23], In 1173 John's elder brothers, backed by Eleanor, rose in revolt against Henry in the short-lived rebellion of 1173 to 1174. [156] John stopped short of trying to actively enforce this charter on the native Irish kingdoms, but historian David Carpenter suspects that he might have done so, had the baronial conflict in England not intervened. [29] Geoffrey's death brought John slightly closer to the throne of England. [146] This had been rescinded by Richard I in exchange for financial compensation in 1189, but the relationship remained uneasy. [166] Innocent disavowed both Reginald and John de Gray, and instead appointed his own candidate, Stephen Langton. Turner, p. 192 citing Brown, pp. Children of Hawise de Tracy and John I 'Lackland', King of England John, taking his ground on the traditional rights of the English crown in episcopal elections, refused to accept Langton. The failed Magna Carta agreement was resuscitated by Marshal's administration and reissued in an edited form in 1217 as a basis for future government. Married Eleanor of Provence, by whom he had issue, including his heir, King Edward I of England. [135] The historian Lewis Warren has argued that the chronicler accounts were subject to considerable bias and the King was "at least conventionally devout", citing his pilgrimages and interest in religious scripture and commentaries. Pages in category "Children of John, King of England" The following 7 pages are in this category, out of 7 total. [150] John invaded Scotland and forced William to sign the Treaty of Norham, which gave John control of William's daughters and required a payment of £10,000. [151] This effectively crippled William's power north of the border, and by 1212 John had to intervene militarily to support William against his internal rivals. [212] John took back Alexander's possessions in northern England in a rapid campaign and pushed up towards Edinburgh over a ten-day period. [23] Henry II began to find more lands for John, mostly at various nobles' expense. 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