German South West Africa, a former German colony (1884–1919) that is now the nation of Namibia, in southwestern Africa. In 1961 the BMS established a branch in West Berlin, which remained in contact with its only remaining missionary field, namely in South Africa, for the next 28 years. If you would like to post a comment and need instructions click here. Further missionaries arrived in 1836/7, with Jacob Ludwig Döhne setting up BMS stations Bethel and Itemba amongst the Xhosa in a part of the Eastern Cape then known as Kaffraria. Jones, T.J. (1922) Education in Africa: A Study of West, South, and Equatorial Africa by the African Education Commission, under the auspices of the Phelps-Stokes Fund and Foreign Mission Societies of North America and Europe. Kropf confirmed that he worked with local leaders Ndhlambes (under chief Umhala) and Gaikas (under chief Sandili). Recently the author acquired a Victorian Photo album which contained a number of Carte-de-Visite format photographs of Berlin Mission Society missionaries, all attached to the German Lutheran church in Berlin (dating from between 1865 and late 1870s). European missionaries to southern Africa during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries played a strangely ambiguous role in the history and affairs of the region. The 31 images contained in the album are mainly of missionaries who did duty in South Africa (12 images), East Africa (6 images) & China (3 images). The Germany Embassy in Pretoria - South Africa. J.D. Although the Church Missionary Society began in England, two German Lutherans sailed for Africa in 1804 as the society’s first missionaries. The BMS began the training of its first missionaries in 1829, with assistance from missionary societies in Pomerania and East Prussia. He arrived in South Africa during 1896 and passed away in Zimbabwe on 23 January 1924 (aged almost 56). The missions also united across denominations. contemporary Africa in such a way that they underline a critical shift in the epicenter of Christianity from the North to the South. Twice married into aristocracy, Wangemann had intimate friends in high places and was acquainted with Bismarck. It raises challenging questions about the nature of mission education legacies. An important director was Hermann Theodor Wangemann [de], who directed the Society from 1865 until his death in 1894. By contrast, the Moravians (Herrnhuter), who were the first German missionaries in southern Africa in 1737, sent their children to school in Germany. A collection of 106 drawings by Wangemann, originating from these journeys, was acquired by a South African museum in 1954. Between Worlds: German Missionaries and the Transition from Mission to Bantu Education in South Africa scrutinises the experience of a hitherto unexplored German mission society, probing the complexities and paradoxes of social change in education. German Embassy in South Africa. The publication in 1904 by the British and Foreign Bible Society of this combined effort was the first complete Bible in an indigenous language. “ Between Worlds: German Missionaries and the Transition from Mission to Bantu Education in South Africa” scrutinizes the experience of a hitherto unexplored German mission society, probing the complexities and paradoxes of social change in education. Please do not use these photos without permission from the copyright holder. On 23 September 1828 the missionary groups from Elberfeld, Barmen and Cologne (Köln) decided to amalgamate to form the Rhenish Mission Society. R R ottcher Wineries’ lineage goes back to Muden near Greytown in KwaZulu-Natal, when a German missionary by the name Reverend Heinrich Rottcher and his family established the Sonnengold Orange Winery in 1916 – the first orang e-based wine-making recorded in South Africa – to supply communion wine for the mission. Pakendorf was born in Germany on 28 August 1869 and arrived in South Africa during 1895. The role that their wives played (for those who married), has certainly been underestimated in that very little has been captured in literature about their roles at mission stations. Other stations followed, but the continuous wars between the British and the Xhosa made missionary work very difficult. Much conflict ensued among the first group of missionaries resulting in all of them leaving the society within a few years. Between worlds : German missionaries and the transition from mission to Bantu education in South Africa. Ambassador: Walter Lindner - Ambassador. [2] During colonialism in South Africa they defied the government and educated black students at a time when the colonial governments forbade this practice. It is interesting that God chose a … He wrote a system of regulations addressing fundamental questions of missionary work, the 1881 Missionsordnung der Gesellschaft zur Beförderung der Evangelischen Missionen unter den Heiden zu Berlin.[4]. His first wife Elisabeth died two days after the birth of their daughter Anna, who married a Johannes Winter in later years. The probability exists that some of the remaining images without inscriptions could also have been South African based missionaries. Hoffman was born in Germany on 2 August 1868 and arrived in South Africa during 1894. Moreover, after World War II the Society's Berlin headquarters fell within the Soviet Zone of Occupied Germany. Places Amalienstein, a Mission Station in the Western Cape; Anhalt-Schmidt, a Mission Station in Little Karoo; Botshebelo Township, near Middleburg; General Galleries. pp v-vi, Evangelical Lutheran Church in Southern Africa, Presbyterian Church in the Republic of Korea, List of Protestant missionary societies in China (1807–1953), Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia (EKBO), Evangelische Kirche - Berlin Missionary Society, The Berlin Mission Society and Black Europeans: The cases of Klaus Kuhn, Jan Sekoto and Gerard Sekoto, Richard Miles: Motswana preacher "to the native tribes beyond the border, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Berlin_Missionary_Society&oldid=994333139, Religious organizations established in 1824, Articles with German-language sources (de), Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 04:34. Johann Heinrich Albert Kropf - German Missionary via Carol Hardijzer. Many questions arise around the existence of the album. Missionary work during the 1800s and early 1900s was clearly a very male dominated field. She passed away in Stutterheim on 26 August 1929. In time, further stations were started in the colony. He was married to Martha Ney who passed away on 14 February 1949. Kuhn qualified as a missionary (he also took lessons as a violinist) and, after becoming engaged to a German woman, Maria Brose, returned to Africa to the mission station Königsberg in Natal – where he married his bride in 1878. The Berlin Mission Society (BMS) started sending missionaries to South Africa as early as 1833. De Jong, C. (1992). The earliest efforts were made by George Schmidt, a Moravian whose work was carried on in the late 18th c by other Moravians at the famous Genadendal Mission Station. History of German Missionaries in South Africa. Missionaries Karl Wilhelm Posselt and Wilhelm Güldenpfennig founded the first BMS station in Natal which they named Emmaus, with further stations being established in the years that followed, including the Christianenberg and Hermannsburg Missions. World War I cut off contact with Germany, but the missions continued at a reduced pace. Missionary settlement in Southern Africa 1800-1925. Many photos are submitted by heritage enthusiasts across the country. (1999). After studying theology and philology (the branch of knowledge that deals with the structure, historical development, and relationships of a language or languages) at the University of Berlin, Wangemann first held a position as tutor in  Bern between 1840 & 1844. The Berlin Missionary Society was one of four German Protestant mission societies active in South Africa before 1914. Hoffmann was among the most prolific 19th and 20th century authors employed by the Berlin Missionary Society. In 1848 he returned to South Africa to assist in establishing a Mission Station but when the 8 th Frontier War broke out Tiyo went back to Scotland, where he was ordained in December 1856. … Pastor Carl Wilhelm Posselt (1815-85) agreed to care for the congregation in New Germany, where he consecrated the first chapel of the BMS in South Africa on 19 November 1848. From Bethanien missionaries founded a station at Pniel on the Vaal River in 1845, which would be at the centre of South Africa’s diamond discoveries in 1869–70. Ten South African based German Missionaries Photographed, Gustav Dietrich - German Missionary via Carol Hardijzer.jpg, Ernst Friedrich Gottschling - German Missionary via Carol Hardijzer.jpg, Carl Adolf Hoffman - German Missionary via Carol Hardijzer.jpg, Eduard Kratzenstein - German Missionary via Carol Hardijzer.jpg, Johann Heinrich Albert Kropf - German Missionary via Carol Hardijzer.jpg, Julius August Marasas - German Missionary via Carol Hardijzer.jpg, Gustav Pakendorf - German Missionary via Carol Hardijzer.jpg, Wilhelm Taurat - German Missionary via Carol Hardijzer.jpg, Hermann Theodor Wangemann - German Missionary via Carol Hardijzer.jpg, Georg Carl Windisch - German Missionary via Carol Hardijzer.jpg, Unidentified female German Missionary via Carol Hardijzer.jpg, A short history of Ncera Methodist Church, Activism by Sandton Ratepayers in the 1990s, Finding the grave of Nat Nakasa in New York, Barnett's Views of Johannesburg and Suburbs - A window on the world that was early Johannesburg, Reflections on the end of World War I and the impact of war, Another brick in the wall – forgotten Kirkness bricks and fireplaces at the UNISA Sunnyside campus, Why Do Municipalities Not Uphold Their By-Laws - A Case Study from Greater Oudtshoorn, The Famous Hanging Building at 78 Fox Street, An opportunity to purchase an original Johannesburg Title Deed, Invitation to comment on the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site Integrated Management Plan (IMP), Hidden History of the Kruger National Park - 16 January 2021, Memories of the Old Melville Swimming Baths, Review of Traditional Tswana Housing: A Study in Four Villages in eastern Botswana (2nd edition), Johannesburg Heritage Foundation responds to the City's update on Museum Africa, City provides update on remedial measures following the break-in at Museum Africa, New Book - Thomas Muir: 'Lad O'Pairts' - The Life and Work of Sir Thomas Muir (1844-1934), Mathematician and Cape Colonial Educationist, Advertise in The Heritage Portal Newsletter, The Capture of Winston Churchill - The Armoured Train Incident. It is also assumed that Missionaries were provided with copies of their own images to use as “visiting cards” in the country where they did service. He travelled before photography became the standard means of recording journeys of this nature. The Society supported work in South Africa, China and East Africa. Was this a formal album that would have belonged to the mission administration, or was it an album of a missionary (or his family) that just passionately compiled such album keeping track of their colleagues doing duty around the globe? Amongst the South African group of images, 10 missionaries have been identified and are presented in this article. Included amongst the batch of photographs were images of two unidentified females, who may have been married to one of the men mentioned above. He passed away in Bergville on 2 June 1940 (aged almost 71). He passed away in Pietersburg on 15 September 1962 (Aged 94). He served as a missionary in South Africa for some 60 years. 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